Refractive Surgery History

Serving Oklahoma City, Norman, Edmond & nearby areas of Oklahoma


The refractive surgery performed at Hummel Eye Associates in Oklahoma City includes the most advanced and effective vision correction techniques available today. These  advanced procedures and technologies  are the culmination of hundreds of years of study and experimentation.

Many people believe that relief from the need for glasses by means of surgery is a new and radical concept. The safety and effectiveness of refractive surgery have become consistent in recent years, but the concept is not new. Leonardo da Vinci was studying refractive error in the early 16th century, and cataract surgeries have been performed for thousands of years.

Early developments
When cataract surgery and a greater understanding of refractive error came together in the mid 1800’s, major breakthroughs were made and the foundation for modern refractive surgery was laid:

  • 1850s -- Albrecht Friederich Wilhelm Ernst von Graefe developed a reliable cataract removal technique.
  • 1867 – The keratometer was developed to measure the curvature of the cornea.
  • 1895 -- full thickness cornea incision was performed by Faber; it successfully reduced astigmatism enough for the patient to pass an eye exam for the Royal Military Academy.
  • 1898 -- Leendert Jan Lans established the basic principles of keratotomy.

Refractive surgery begins
In the 1930s Tsutomu Sato observed flattening of the cornea after traumatic eye injury and began developing refractive surgery techniques based on the principles established by Leendert Jan Lans. By the early 1940s Sato and his assistants had performed hundreds of successful radial keratotomy surgeries. The development of refractive surgery, as we know it today, was truly under way.

  • 1949 -- Jose Barraquer developed lamellar surgery. The cornea was removed, frozen, and reshaped.
  • 1978 – Leo Bores brought radial keratotomy to the United States.
  • 1985 -- Casimir Swinger developed a method of reshaping the cornea without having to freeze it.
  • 1985 – The excimer laser was first used on human eyes, and the procedure was named Photorefractive Keratectomy (PK).
  • 1987 -- Luis Ruiz developed Automated Lamellar Keratoplasty, a method of making the adjustments in the eye without having to remove the cornea.
  • 1990’s – Pallikaris and Buratto used the excimer laser to perform Automated Lamellar Keratoplasty, creating LASIK.

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Financing Vision Care

There has never been a better time for you to see your best! Hummel Eye Associates has been serving Oklahoma since 1969. We keep our technology up-to-date so that we can offer you the best possible vision correction and eye care. Contact us today to set up your free initial consultation.

Hummel Eye Associates
Hummel Eye Associates
4205 McAuley Blvd. #401
Oklahoma City, OK, 73120
Phone:(405) 755-6111
Fax: (405) 755-6298

1-800-522-EYES (3937)

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Disclaimer: The information provided on LASIK Eye surgery for patients in Edmond, Norman, and Oklahoma City, Ardmore, Purcell, Woodward, Alva, Yukon Oklahoma is intended to be a public service. It is not intended to be medical advice, but to provide information about qualified Cataract and LASIK surgeons in the Oklahoma City, Oklahoma area.

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